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This was soon followed by other military governments, and jolted off a civil war between the government and leftist guerrillas that lasted from 1960 to 1996.The war saw human rights violations, including a genocide of the indigenous Mayan population by the United States-backed military.Called "the invader" by the Mayan peoples, he began subjugating the Indian states with his forces.Guatemala was part of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, for nearly 300 years; this Captaincy, or Capitanía, included the territories of Chiapas, Campeche, Tabasco in modern Mexico, and the modern countries of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in Quiché in the Highlands and Sipacate, Escuintla on the central Pacific coast.Though it is unclear when these groups of hunters and gatherers turned to cultivation, pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate maize cultivation as early as 3500 BC.This lasted until around 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed.The Maya abandoned many of the cities of the central lowlands or died in a drought-induced famine.
Until recently, the Preclassic was regarded as a formative period, consisting of small villages of farmers who lived in huts and few permanent buildings, but this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; ceremonial sites at Miraflores and El Naranjo from 801 BC; the earliest monumental masks; and the Mirador Basin cities of Nakbé, Xulnal, El Tintal, Wakná and El Mirador.These companies, supported by the country's authoritarian rulers, and the United States government through their support for brutal labor regulations and massive concessions to wealthy landowners.In 1944, the policies of Jorge Ubico led to a popular uprising which began the ten-year Guatemalan Revolution.The presidencies of Juan José Arévalo and Jacobo Árbenz saw sweeping social and economic reforms, including a significant increase in literacy and a successful agrarian reform program.The progressive policies of Arévalo and Árbenz led to the United Fruit Company lobbying the United States government for their overthrow, and a US-engineered coup in 1954 ended the revolution and installed a military regime in its place.
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Following the end of the war in 1997, Guatemala re-established a representative democracy.