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The difference, though considerable, is however less in reality than in appearance. To give to each of the Spanish- American provinces, and later to each of the federal and inde- pendent states, covering as they do with dead mo- notony centuries of unchanging action and ideas, time and space equal to that which may be well employed in narrating north-western occupation and empire- building would be no less impracticable than profit- less. He had intended equity and honesty in his rulings, and exceptional kindness to the natives; notwithstanding which he began by granting repartimientos to him- self, his wife, and kindred, and giving the best of the remainder to his favorites.
In respect of detail, to some extent I reverse this order, proceeding from the more gen- eral to the more minute as I advance northward. He possessed neither the ability nor the prudence of Ovando.
First given is a glance at European society, particularly Spanish civilization at about the close of the fifteenth century. One of the keys was held by the iesorero, one by the contador, and one by the factor. The removal of Ovando was delayed by the death of Isabella in 1504, and of Columbus in 1506.
The territory covered embraces the whole of Central America and Mexico, and all Anglo-American domains west of the Rocky Mountains. Alegre (Francisco Javier), Historia de la Compania de Jesus en Nueva Espafiia. The strong-box of the India House, the law goes on to say, must remain in the custody of the treasurer, who was responsible for its safe keeping. discretion, whetlier in the management of men or women.
Oak, Mr William Nemos, Mr Thomas Savage, Mrs Frances Fuller Victor, and Mr Ivan Petroff, of whom, and of others, I speak at length elsewhere. Alonso de Zuazo took his seat among the oidores in 1526.
Of my methods of working I need say but little here, since I describe them more fully in another place. Agiiiar y Acuiia (Rodrigo de), Svmarios de la Recop Uacion general de las Leyea de las Indias. Aguilar (Manuel), Memoria sobre el cultivo del Caf(5. To the audiencia of Santo Domingo was given for its district the West India Islands; and on the mainland the governments of Venezuela, Nueva Andalucia, Rio de Hacha, and Guayana, or el Dorado, this district being bounded by those of the audiencias of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, Tierra Firme, Gua- temala, Nueva Espana, and the provinces of Florida.
Then, beginning with the discoveries of Columbus, the men from Europe are closely followed as one after another they find and take possession of the country in its several parts, and the doings of their successors are chronicled. Alcanzada (Victoria), Diacursoa Pronunciados, Abr U 29 de 1863. In this box were kept, temporarily, all gold, silver, pearls, and precious stones that came from the Indies on the king's account, or were recovered for him by suits at law brought before the India House in Spain. His marriage, meanwhile, with Maria de Toledo, a lady of high birth and con- nection, assisted in opening the eyes of the law to the justness of his demands, fully as much as did any argument of counsel.
This is followed by a summary of maritime explora- tion from the fourth century to the year 1540, with some notices of the earliest American books. Alcedo (Antonio de), Diccionario Geogrdfico Hist6rico. Out of the hand of any one of these three royal officers his key could not lawfully go ; and no one but they might put into the chest or take out of it any thing, under penalty, on the official permitting it, of four times the value of the things so handled. After persistent importunities Diego Colon, son of the ad- miral, was permitted in 1508 to plead in the courts of Spain his claim, as his father's successor, to the viceroyalty of the Indies.
Most of those who thus gave me their testi- mony in person are now dead; and the narratives of their observations and experiences, as they stand re- corded in these manuscript volumes, constitute no unimportant element in the foundation upon which the structure of this western history in its several parts must forever rest. Alaman (Liicas), Disertaoiones sobre la Historia de la Kepiiblica Mejicana. 103, says that when the Jeronimite friars arxi Ted a few days before Cliristmas, 1516, the jueces de apelacion 'ya se llamaban oydores, 6 su auditorio ya se de^ia audiencia Real. After that he writes jueces de apelacion, and audiencia indifferently. Ind., v, 45, treating of events in 1518-20, says 'jueces de apelacion;' relating the occur- rencesof 1521, 165, 177, he writes 'audiencia,' and 'ouatro oidores.' Writing the king August 30, 1520, Pacheco and Cdrdenas, Col. 332-48, the court styles itself Meal Audiencia, the members signing the communication. Indeed, beside some of the other officers, a president had already been provided in 1521, in the person of Luis de Figueroa, bishop of Concepcion.From the two extremes, equally to 1ft avoided, the true historian will, whatever his inclination, be im- pelled by prudence, judgment, and duty from theory toward fact, from vivid coloring toward photographic exactness. Should any one demand it, decisions in civil suits were to be rendered in one case before another was begun ; suits of poor persona always to have preference in time of hearing.Not that there is too much brilliancy in current history, but too little fact. Acosta (Joaquin), Compeudio Histbrico del Descubrimiento, etc., de la Jfueva Granada. Even dis- senting judges must sign the decision, making it unanimous.i 7673-3 3 1924 092 215 304 I Cornell University y Library The original of tiiis book is in tine Cornell University Library. After the Conquest, the histories of Central America and Mexico are presented on a scale sufficiently compre- hensive, but national rather than local. vii Mexican states, having had a more varied experi- ence, arising from nearer contact with progressional events, receive somewhat more attention in regard to detail than other parts of the repubhc. Charges of a serious nature against the son of the Genoese so frequently reached THE SOVEREIGN TRIBUNAL.There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. To the Pacij Sc United States is devoted more space com- paratively than to southern regions, California being regarded as the centre and culminating point of this historical field. 269 Spain that in 1 5 1 1 the king found it necessary to estab- lish at Santo Domingo a sovereign tribunal to which appeals might be made from the decisions of the gov- ernor.